Arokoyo DS, Bamidele O, Babatunde LD, Adebisi O
Anacardium occidentale L. stem bark has been reported locally to stop tooth bleeding. However, scientific report on this assertion is relatively scanty. This study was therefore conducted to scientifically investigate the possible haemostatic effect of methanolic stem bark extract of Anacardium occidentale L. using albino rat as a model. Twenty four (24) albino rats weighing 110 to 160 g were divided into four groups of six (6) rats each. Control group received 10 ml/kg of vehicle (normal saline) while Group I, II, and III served as the experimental groups and were given 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of the methanolic stem bark extract of Anacardium occidentale L. intraperitoneally once a day for two weeks. In all groups, the blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture under diethyl ether anaesthesia to determine prothrombin time, clotting time, activated partial thromboplastin time and platel et count. A skin puncture was made quickly using disposable lancet to determine bleeding time. The result s obtained revealed that methanolic leaf extract of A. occidentale significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the bleeding time, prothrombin time, clotting time and activated partial thromboplastin time respectively in a dose dependent manner. In contrast, platelet count significantly increased (p < 0.05). The study suggests that methanolic stem bark extract of Anacardium occidentale L. possesses haemostatic activities, justifying its use to stop bleeding traditionally.
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