The rates of cholesterol uptake and efflux determine the transformation of macrophages into foam cells. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are examined in this study using a real-time RT-PCR method to investigate their roles in the regulation of the liver X receptor (LXR) and ATP-binding cassette A1 (ABCA1) genes, which are involved in cholesterol homeostasis. As a result, the total, free, and esterified cholesterol levels in the foam cells were significantly reduced by these fatty acids. The pharmacological LXR ligand T0901317 increased the expression of the ABCA1 and LXR genes, but CLA, ALA, and EPA had no significant effect on their mRNA expression (Rom et al., 2016). These findings suggest that, despite their influence on cholesterol homeostasis, polyunsaturated fatty acids cannot alter the expression of the ABCA1 and LXR genes. Alternately, a number of additional proteins and genes may be involved (Hampton 2017).
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