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International Research Journal of Agricultural Science and Soil Science

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Effect of calcium and phosphorus fertilizer on the growth and yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Abstract

Kamara, E.G, Olympio, N.S and Asibuo, J.Y

Two experiments were conducted at the CSIR-Crops Research Institute (CSIR-CRI), Kumasi in Ghana during the major and minor seasons of 2009 to study the effects of calcium and phosphorus fertilization on the growth and seed yield of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.). A 2x2x3 factorial design was used. The factors studied were two varieties of groundnut, two rates of phosphorus (0 and 40 kg P2O5 ha-1) and three levels of calcium (0, 100 and 200 kg Ca ha-1) were applied. Pod and seed yields were generally higher in the major season. Dry spell in the minor season affected the results. Application of calcium fertilizer had a positive effect on the number of filled pods, shelling percentage and 100 seed weight. Application of 100 kg Ca ha-1 significantly (P≤0.05) out-yielded the control in number of filled pods, shelling percentage and 100 seed weight which invariably resulted in higher pod and seed yields. The results also show that phosphorus fertilization significantly (P≤0.05) influenced vegetative growth and biomass of the two groundnut varieties. Positive relationship was observed between number of filled pods and shelling percentage (r2=0.97). The results indicated that calcium and phosphorus fertilization are vital for the growth and seed yield of groundnut.

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