Obesity is a global public health problem that leads to many complications and comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and fatty liver. Drug therapy alone or in combination with lifestyle changes or surgery represent a major modality for combating obesity and its complications. However, most anti-obesity drugs are limited by bioavailability, target specificity, and potential toxic effects. Currently, only a handful of drugs, such as orlistat, liraglutide, and semaglutide, are approved for clinical treatment of obesity. Therefore, there is an urgent need for alternative treatment strategies . Based on new knowledge of the etiology of obesity and efforts to integrate materials, chemistry, biotechnology, and pharmacies interdisciplinary, several new obesity treatment strategies are gradually entering the field of preclinical and clinical research.
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