Allergens: sources, exposure and sensitization levels, diagn | 18081
International Research Journals

Allergens: sources, exposure and sensitization levels, diagnostic tools and immunotherapeutical applications


Taketomi, Ernesto A., Almeida, Karine C., Pereira, Fernando L., Silva, Deise A.O.

Allergens are proteins or glycoproteins that are usually divided in indoor allergens, such as those derived from house dust mites, molds, cockroaches and pets, and outdoor allergens, as those derived from pollen grains. Mites of the genus Dermatophagoides spp. are the predominant fauna in house dust worldwide. Many studies have shown that public places, such as hospitals, offices, cinemas, schools, hotels or even public and private transport vehicles may contain mite allergen levels sufficient to sensitize genetically predisposed individuals. Other important allergens in the development of allergic diseases are derived from pet and cockroaches. Can f 1 and Fel d 1 are the major allergens derived from dog and cat danders, respectively, that are investigated in allergen exposure and sensitization. Allergens from Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana are clinically relevant in the development of asthma. Other allergen sources are derived from fungus, as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Cladosporium herbarum and Epicoccum nigrum. Several species of grasses that produce pollen have been recognized as important allergen sources in temperate climates, such as Lolium perenne, Poa pratensis, Phleum pratense, Dactylis glomerata and Cynodon dactylon. For the diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergic diseases caused by these allergens, the development of molecular biology techniques was fundamental for the production, identification and characterization of several recombinant proteins. The production of hypoallergenic recombinant proteins related with allergenic sources will be important for attending the current trend to incorporate the recombinant allergens in products for the treatment of respiratory allergies, and monitoring of the immune response profile in patients under allergen-specific immunotherapy represents a vast promising field and innovative scientific research.

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