Derejaw Tesfa* and Tileye Feyissa
RNAs together are now found to be a major player in gene expression in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Small RNAs regulate genes by targeting transcripts in the cytoplasm and repressing their translation in all organisms. After discovery of RNAi technology in 1990, modifying the genes by the interference of small RNAs is one of the ways through which plants react to the environmental stresses. Endogenously generated and exogenously supplied dsRNAs activate RNAi in a sequence-specific manner. This strategy is a promising path for providing low risk and environmentally safe plant protection. Hence, investigating the role of small RNAs in regulating gene expression assists the researchers to explore the potentiality of small RNAs in abiotic and biotic stress management. Altogether, the history, conserved enzymes like Dicer, RISC (RNA-induced Silencing Complex) and its synthesis, delivery, gene knockdown mechanism, its assay after delivery and ending application of RNAi are reviewed.
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