Here, we present the first synthesis of the Tephosphoramidite and 5-phenyl-telluride-thymidine derivatives. Additionally, we provide here investigations on DNA oligonucleotides that have the nucleobase (thymine) derivatized with 5-phenyl-telluride activity, including their synthesis, structures, and STM current imaging (5- Te). Te-DNA duplex possesses thermo-stability comparable to the corresponding native duplex, while 5-Te-DNA is stable. The 5-Te-DNA duplex structure is nearly equivalent to the native one, according to the crystal structure, and the Te-modified T and native A interact similarly to the native T and A pair. Furthermore, STM imaging of the DNA duplex modified with electron-rich tellurium functionality revealed high topographic and current peaks whereas the equivalent native displayed faint signals, suggesting a viable method for directly imaging DNA without structural disturbance (Hamilton et al., 2002).
Tellurium was successfully integrated into proteins and used in X-ray crystallography to determine the structure of proteins. There have been few researches done on how tellurium modifies DNA and RNA. The current progress in Te-modified nucleosides, nucleotides, and nucleic acids is highlighted in this study, which also outlines the key synthetic methods used to create the 5-PhTe, 2′-MeTe, and 2′-PhTe modifications. These alterations are persistent throughout Te-oligonucleotide purification and consistent with solid-phase synthesis. Te-modified DNA and RNA also have excellent potential uses in 3D crystal structure determination using X-ray diffraction due to the outstanding electrical and atomic characteristics of tellurium for creating clear isomorphous signals. Te-modified DNA exhibits high topographic and current peaks, according to an STM study, which instantly points to possible uses in molecular electronics, diagnostics, nanomaterials, and direct imaging of nucleic acids. Theoretical investigations suggest that Te-modified nucleosides may be used in the treatment of cancer (Craveiro et al., 2018).
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