Jombo GTA, Odey F, Ibor S, Bolarin DM , Ejezie GC, Egah DZ, Okwori EE, Enenebeaku MNO, Alao OO
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are often considered uncommon among children by clinicians. The study was therefore set up to ascertain the prevalence of significant bacteriuria among pre-school children in a Nigerian urban community. Pre-school children attending nursery schools in different distinct geographical locations of Calabar city were recruited through computer assisted random sampling methods. Information from both children and parents such as age and gender of children, educational level and occupation of parents/guardians were obtained with the aid of a structured questionnaire; other anthropometric measurements on the children were also carried out. Urine samples were collected stored and processed using standard laboratory methods while diffusion methods were used to carry out the antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Dipstick was also used to screen the urine for probable urinary tract infection and the results compared with cultural methods. Data obtained was analyzed using Epi Info 6 statistical software. The prevalence of significant bacteriuria among the 455 pre-school children was 7.3% with infection rate increasing proportionately with age (P< 0.05) but with no gender difference (P> 0.05). Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis and Klebsiella spp. were the commonest organisms encountered. Dipstick screening UTI was found to be 87.9% and 96% sensitive and specific respectively compared to the gold standard. Urinary tract infection is a probable phenomenon among pre-school children and screening for it could be carried out with the aid of urinary dipstick in the absence of appropriate cultural methods and its obvious limitations proportionately factored into medical decision making.
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