Educational Research (ISSN: 2141-5161) Vol. 9(1), pp. 008-015, January 2018. DOI: http:/dx.doi.org/10.14303/er.2017.511. Copyright © 2018 International Research Journals
Full Length Research Paper
Learning environmental effects on reading and writing English Braille grade ii for the visually impaired child
* 1Zipporah Manoti Masea, 2Were Charles Michael and 3John Agak
Maseno University, P.O. Box 333, Maseno Kenya
*Corresponding Author’s E-mail:email@example.com
Received December 2, 2017; Accepted December 21, 2017
Learners with visual impairment (VI) depend on Braille as a medium of instruction and communication. According to a report by the Ministry of Education, only 45 (30.6%) out of 147(100%) of learners with VI enrolled in upper primary classes in Kisumu and Siaya counties could read and write English Braille grade II competently. Despite this discrepancy, there was no documented explanation for this low percentage of learners with English Braille grade II competencies, particularly in Kisumu and Siaya Counties. The purpose of this study was to establish environmental challenges faced by learners with visual impairment in reading and writing of English Braille grade II, in selected Special Primary Schools in Kisumu and Siaya counties Kenya. The purpose of this study was to establish environmental challenges faced by learners with visual impairment in reading and writing of English Braille grade II, in selected Special Primary Schools in Kisumu and Siaya counties Kenya. Objective of the study was to; Establish Learner based challenges in acquiring and using English Braille grade II. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. The target population was 162 visually impaired learners and 54 teachers. Saturated sampling technique was used to select 147 visually impaired learners and 49 teachers. Data was collected by use of questionnaires and interview schedules. Test re-test method was used to determine the reliability coefficient of instruments at a score of 0.75. Face and content validity of the research instruments was ascertained by experts from the department of Special Needs Education. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages were used to analyze quantitative data. Qualitative data was transcribed, categorized into themes and sub-themes as they emerged. The findings revealed that these learners had negative attitude towards communication in English Braille Grade II. Only 26 (19.2%) out of 147 of the learners were able to read and write English Braille Grade II. This study recommended early stimulation and introduction to Braille code for learners with VI; enforcement of functional educational inclusion to accommodate learners with VI and adoption of Individualized Educational Program (IEP). These findings will be of use to the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development, Kenya National Examination Council, and Teacher Training Colleges for adapting the curriculum, on setting Examinations, and on how to train Teachers for Learners with visual impairment.
Keyword: Learning environment, Reading and Writing, Braille, Visually Impaired.