Journal of Research in Nursing and Midwifery

Journal of Research in Nursing and Midwifery (JRNM) (ISSN: 2315-568) Vol. 6(2) pp.025-032, May, 2017. DOI: http:/ Copyright © 2017 International Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Experiences of mothers with gestational diabetes in Ghana

1Gwendolyn Patience Mensah, 2Comfort Kafui Affram, 3Solina Richter*, 4Richard Banful

1Nursing and Midwifery Training College 37 Military Hospital Accra, Ghana

2School of Nursing University of Ghana

3Faculty of Nursing University of Alberta Edmonton, AB, Canada

4Medifem Multi-specialist Hospital and Fertility Centre Accra, Ghana

*Corresponding Author’s E-mail:

Received November 21, 2015;  Accepted January 22, 2016



Aim: The purpose of this study was to describe pregnant women’s experiences of acquiring and living with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) at a hospital in Accra, Ghana. Background: In the past 20 years, the prevalence of GDM has increased dramatically. The impact of being diagnosed with GDM, such as developing medical complications and associated lifestyle changes, has rarely been investigated in low to middle income countries. Methods: The descriptive phenomenological approach was used. Ten pregnant women diagnosed with GDM were recruited.  Semi structured interviews were used to collect data. Findings: The findings indicated that participants had challenges with life style modifications. Managing GDM affected their psychological wellbeing. They feared that they could develop Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus; others felt it had spiritual connotations. The participants found the support of family, friends and medical staff to be helpful. We believe that hearing the experiences of participants living with GDM will help medical personnel to render the care and advice needed to ensure a healthy pregnancy outcome. The findings of this research are adding to existing knowledge and form a basis for further research.  It potentially can inform policies related to patient education.

Keywords: Experiences, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, Lifestyle modifications, Psychological and Social experiences.


Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is one of the most cost-effective, health-promoting, and disease-preventing intervention and has been referred to as the cornerstone of child survival. Many mothers however discontinue EBF before the end of six months recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) some due to psychosocial issues. Breast feeding self-efficacy scale-short form (BSES-SF), has been used to establish mothers’ self-efficacy towards breastfeeding by computing breast feeding self-efficacy (BSE) scores. These scores have been used globally to predict EBF duration. Internationally accepted tools can be used to compare data across countries. Such tools however need to be translated into local languages for different countries and set-ups.  The aim of the study was to translate and validate the English BSES-SF into Kiswahili the national laguage in Kenya. The study was a pilot study within the main cluster randomized longitudinal study. Pregnant women at 37 weeks gestation were randomly placed into, intervention (n=21) and comparison (n=21) groups. The BSES-SF questionnaire was used to collect data on BSE at baseline and another questionnaire used to collect socio-economic data. Mothers in the intervention were educated on the importance of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and skills required while those in the comparison group went through usual care provided at the health facility. Nutrition education was tailored to promoting maternal BSE. The translated BSES-SF was found to be easy to understand, it showed good consistency and semantic validity. Predictive validity was demonstrated through significant mean differences between the groups. The intervention group had higher EBF rates at 6 weeks post-partum (χ2=6.170, p=0.013). The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the Kiswahili version of the BSES-SF was 0.91 with a mean score of 60.95 (SD ±10.36), an item mean of 4.354, ranging from 3.69 to 5.595 and an item variance of 1.193, ranging from 0.539 to 2.268. The Kiswahili version of the BSES-SF is a valid and reliable tool and it has utility in breastfeeding promotion.


Keywords: Validation, Breast feeding self efficacy scale, Kiswahili 

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