Journal of Dentistry, Medicine and Medical Sciences

Journal of Dentistry, Medicine and Medical Sciences (JDMMS) Vol. 3(1) pp. 7-17, January, 2014. DOI: http:/ Copyright © 2014 International Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Micro-Photographic Analysis of Titanium Anodization to Assess Bio-activation

Ibrahim M. Hammouda*1,2, Noha A. El-wassefy1, Hamdy A. Marzook3, Ahmed Nour El-deen A. Habib4, Ghada Y. El-awady5

1Department of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

2Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Al Qura University, Makkah, KSA

3Department of Oral Surgery, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

4Department of Dental Biomaterials, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

5Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt

*Corresponding author email:



Today surface modifications of titanium implants have become a development strategy of dental implants. The present study investigated the morphology (SEM), surface elemental analysis (EDX), surface roughness (AFM) and crystalline structure (XRD) of TiO2 film prepared via anodic oxidation of grade II commercially pure titanium specimens in different electrolytic solutions and times. Incubation of anodized specimens into simulated body fluids for 7 days showed that a layer containing calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) was precipitated on the titanium surface. This was detected by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), the atomic Ca/P ration was calculated and compared to the hydroxyapatite ratio 1.67. The oxide film observed on specimens, who did not experience dielectric breakdown experienced little morphological, surface areas and roughness changes. When sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate solution were used as electrolyte, the anodized specimens experienced dielectric breakdown and showed variation in their morphology, surface areas and roughness changes.  It was found that bioactive titanium metals could be prepared via anodic oxidation of grade II cpTi in 1M sulfuric acid solution for 4 min, followed by heat treatment at 600oC for 1 h. Small globules of the calcium phosphate layer precipitated on the titanium surfaces after 7 days of soaking time into SBF. However, for the non- treated titanium samples the precipitation of the bone-like apatite was not observed. The oxide film exhibits the ability of inducing the precipitation of a calcium-phosphate layer similar to the bone-like apatite.

Keywords: Commercially pure titanium; Anodic oxidation; Morphology; Chemical analysis; Roughness; Atomic Force Microscopy.

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