Educational Research

Educational Research (ISSN:2141-5161) Vol. 3(1), pp. 190-201 February 2012         
Copyright © 2012 International Research Journals


Full Length Research Paper

Assessment of factors that contribute to repetition and dropout of pupils in primary schools in Flood Prone Areas of Nyando District, Kenya: an analytical study 

Hellen A. Okuom, Enose M.W. Simatwa, Olel A. Maureen, Kennedy M. Wichenje

Department of Educational Management and Foundations, Maseno University 

*Corresponding Author E-mail:

Received 10 February, 2012; Accepted 16 February, 2012 


Floods and low primary school enrolments are major concerns in Nyando Districts every year. With the inception of Free Primary Education programme in 2003 enrolments rose from 83,147 in 2002 to 96,475 in 2003 but dropped to 90,251 in 2004, further dropping to 89,532 in 2005 suggesting there was educational wastage concerns in the district. The purpose of the study therefore was to assess factors that contribute to repetition and dropout of pupils in primary schools in flood prone areas of Nyando District. Ex-post-facto and descriptive survey designs were used in the study. The study population consisted of 35 head teachers, 280 teachers, 1,225 standard eight pupils, in 35 flood prone primary schools and one District Quality Assurance Officer. Data was collected using document analysis guide, questionnaire, interview schedule and focus group discussion. The study established high repeater rate of 23.63% and dropout rate of 20.17% in the district. Floods and flood related factors were found to be  the cause to loss of learning hours and equally exacerbating poverty through destruction of infrastructure and school structures, water borne diseases, high absenteeism, low syllabus coverage and  poor performance in flood prone areas of Nyando District. The study concluded that there was high repetition and dropout rates due to floods and flood related factors. The study recommended building and repair of dykes to reduce flooding, pitch tents for learners in camping sites, equitable distribution of funds for infrastructure, initiate school health/nutrition and feeding programmes, hardship allowance for teachers and any other mechanisms that could  institutionalized for addressing the plight of learners and the entire community in flood prone areas to reduce educational wastage. The findings of the study are important to the government, educational planners, stake holders, donor agencies, parents and community in making decisions and laying strategies applicable to flood prone areas in order to reduce educational wastage.


Keywords: Assessment, repetition, dropout, pupils, primary schools, flood prone areas, Nyando District, Kenya.

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